Problems / Opportunities



          PAST                         PRESENT                    FUTURE

    ------------------------>         ---------------------------->     ---------------------------------->




                       Dialectical Thinking                      Critical Thinking


“Propositional      <--------->              “Tacit

  Knowledge”                                 Knowledge”



Critical Thinking                                                  Critical Thinking      

about prepositional                                              via “reflection-in-action”

knowledge generated                                          

by the social sciences                                          Skepticism about the utility of

                                                                              past knowledge for addressing

-- Rooted in the past                                            present and future concerns

-- Simplistic / Superficial                             

-- Authority grounded in                                     -- Raising assumptions

    supposed ability                                                   to awareness

    predict and control                                           -- Seeking alternative


Leads to emphasis on

“means to ends”                                                 Emphasis on

and ignores consideration                                  “Induction”

of whether the “ends”                                        “Divergent Thinking”

should be pursued                                               “Systems Thinking”

(“Morally neutral Technician”)                         “Learning”


                                                                             Discovering what works

                                                                             in a particular time bound